Fig: The co-occurrence networks of bacterial and fungal communities in straw residues during different periods of decomposition.
Managing above-ground plant carbon inputs can pave the way toward carbon neutrality and mitigating climate change. Chemical complexity of plant residues largely controls carbon sequestration. There exist conflicting opinions on whether residue chemistry diverges or converges after long-term decomposition. Moreover, whether and how microbial communities regulate residue chemistry remains unclear. This study investigated the decomposition processes and residue composition dynamics of maize straw and wheat straw and related microbiomes over a period of 9 years in three climate zones. Residue chemistry exhibited a divergent-convergent trajectory during decomposition, that is, the residue composition diverged during the 0.5–3 year period under the combined effect of straw type and climate and then converged to an array of common compounds during the 3–9 year period. Chemical divergence during the first 2–3 years was primarily driven by the changes in extracellular enzyme activity influenced by keystone taxa-guided bacterial networks, and the keystone taxa belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, particularly Rhizobiales. After 9 years, microbial assimilation became dominant, leading to chemical convergence, and fungi, particularly Chaetomium, were the main contributors to microbial assimilation. Overall, this study demonstrated that keystone taxa regulate the divergent-convergent trajectory in residue chemistry.
Read More: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-023-01384-2